Side Effects of Viagra

 

ADVERSE REACTIONS

 

Pre-Marketing Experience

 

Sildenafil citrate was administered to over 3700 patients (aged 19-87 years) during clinical trials worldwide. Over 550 patients were treated for longer than one year.

 

In placebo-controlled clinical studies, the discontinuation rate due to adverse events for sildenafil citrate (2.5%) was not significantly different from placebo (2.3%). The adverse events were generally transient and mild to moderate in nature.

 

In trials of all designs, adverse events reported by patients receiving sildenafil citrate were generally similar. In fixed-dose studies, the incidence of some adverse events increased with dose. The nature of the adverse events in flexible-dose studies, which more closely reflect the recommended dosage regimen, was similar to that for fixed-dose studies.

 

When sildenafil citrate was taken as recommended (on an as-needed basis) in flexible-dose, placebo-controlled clinical trials.

 

 

Adverse Events Reported by ³2% of Patients Treated with Sildenafil Citrate and More Frequent on Drug Than Placebo in PRN Flexible-Dose Phase II/III Studies
Adverse Event Percentage of Patients Reporting Event
  Sildenafil Citrate Placebo
  N=734 N=725
 Headache 16% 4%
 Flushing 10% 1%
 Dyspepsia 7% 2%
 Nasal Congestion 4% 2%
 Urinary Tract Infection 3% 2%
 Abnormal Vision* 3% 0%
 Diarrhea 3% 1%
 Dizziness 2% 1%
 Rash 2% 1%
* Abnormal Vision: Mild and transient, predominantly color tinge to vision, but also increased sensitivity to light or blurred vision. In these studies, only one patient discontinued due to abnormal vision.

 


Other adverse reactions occurred at a rate of >2%, but equally common on placebo; respiratory tract infection, back pain, flu syndrome, and arthralgia.

 

In fixed-dose studies, dyspepsia (17%) and abnormal vision (11%) were more common at 100 mg than at lower doses. At doses above the recommended dose range, adverse events were similar to those detailed above but generally were reported more frequently.

 

The following events occurred in <2% of patients in controlled clinical trials; a causal relationship to sildenafil citrate is uncertain. Reported events include those with a plausible relation to drug use; omitted are minor events and reports too imprecise to be meaningful.

 

Body as a Whole: Face edema, photosensitivity reaction, shock, asthenia, pain, chills, accidental fall, abdominal pain, allergic reaction, chest pain, accidental injury.

 

Cardiovascular: Angina pectoris, AV block, migraine, syncope, tachycardia, palpitation, hypotension, postural hypotension, myocardial ischemia, cerebral thrombosis, cardiac arrest, heart failure, abnormal electrocardiogram, cardiomyopathy.

 

Digestive: Vomiting, glossitis, colitis, dysphagia, gastritis, gastroenteritis, esophagitis, stomatitis, dry mouth, liver function tests abnormal, rectal hemorrhage, gingivitis.

 

Hemic and Lymphatic: Anemia and leukopenia.

 

Metabolic and Nutritional: Thirst, edema, gout, unstable diabetes, hyperglycemia, peripheral edema, hyperuricemia, hypoglycemic reaction, hypernatremia.

 

Musculoskeletal: Arthritis, arthrosis, myalgia, tendon rupture, tenosynovitis, bone pain, myasthenia, synovitis.

 

Nervous: Ataxia, hypertonia, neuralgia, neuropathy, paresthesia, tremor, vertigo, depression, insomnia, somnolence, abnormal dreams, reflexes decreased, hypesthesia.

 

Respiratory: Asthma, dyspnea, laryngitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, bronchitis, sputum increased, cough increased.

 

Skin and Appendages: Urticaria, herpes simplex, pruritus, sweating, skin ulcer, contact dermatitis, exfoliative dermatitis.

 

Special Senses: Mydriasis, conjunctivitis, photophobia, tinnitus, eye pain, deafness, ear pain, eye hemorrhage, cataract, dry eyes.

 

Urogenital: Cystitis, nocturia, urinary frequency, breast enlargement, urinary incontinence, abnormal ejaculation, genital edema and anorgasmia.

 

Post-Marketing Experience

 

Cardiovascular: Serious cardiovascular events, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, ventricular arrhythmia, cerebrovascular hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack and hypertension, have been reported post-marketing in temporal association with the use of sildenafil citrate. Most, but not all, of these patients had preexisting cardiovascular risk factors. Many of these events were reported to occur during or shortly after sexual activity, and a few were reported to occur shortly after the use of sildenafil citrate without sexual activity. Others were reported to have occurred hours to days after the use of sildenafil citrate and sexual activity. It is not possible to determine whether these events are related directly to sildenafil citrate, to sexual activity, to the patient's underlying cardiovascular disease, to a combination of these factors, or to other factors.

 

Other Events: Other events reported post-marketing to have been observed in temporal association with sildenafil citrate and not listed in Pre-Marketing Experience include:

 

Nervous: Seizure and anxiety.

 

Urogenital: Prolonged erection, priapism and hematuria.

 

Ocular: Diplopia, temporary vision loss/decreased vision, ocular redness or bloodshot appearance, ocular burning, ocular swelling/pressure, increased intraocular pressure, retinal vascular disease or bleeding, vitreous detachment/traction and paramacular edema.

 

DRUG INTERACTIONS

 

Effects of Other Drugs on Sildenafil Citrate

 

In Vitro Studies: Sildenafil metabolism is principally mediated by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms 3A4 (major route) and 2C9 (minor route). Therefore, inhibitors of these isoenzymes may reduce sildenafil clearance.

 

In Vivo Studies: Cimetidine (800 mg), a nonspecific CYP inhibitor, caused a 56% increase in plasma sildenafil concentrations when coadministered with sildenafil citrate (50 mg) to healthy volunteers.

 

When a single 100 mg dose of sildenafil citrate was administered with erythromycin, a specific CYP3A4 inhibitor, at steady state (500 mg bid for 5 days), there was a 182% increase in sildenafil systemic exposure (AUC). In addition, coadministration of the HIV protease inhibitor saquinavir, also a CYP3A4 inhibitor, at steady state (1200 mg tid) with sildenafil citrate (100 mg single dose) resulted in a 140% increase in sildenafil Cmax and a 210% increase in sildenafil AUC. Sildenafil citrate had no effect on saquinavir pharmacokinetics. Stronger CYP3A4 inhibitors such as ketoconazole or itraconazole would be expected to have still greater effects, and population data from patients in clinical trials did indicate a reduction in sildenafil clearance when it was coadministered with CYP3A4 inhibitors (such as ketoconazole, erythromycin, or cimetidine) (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

 

Coadministration with the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir, which is a highly potent P450 inhibitor, at steady state (400 mg bid) with sildenafil citrate (100 mg single dose) resulted in a 300% (4-fold) increase in sildenafil Cmax and a 1000% (11-fold) increase in sildenafil plasma AUC. At 24 hours the plasma levels of sildenafil were still approximately 200 ng/mL, compared to approximately 5 ng/mL when sildenafil was dosed alone. This is consistent with ritonavir's marked effects on a broad range of P450 substrates. Sildenafil citrate had no effect on ritonavir pharmacokinetics.

 

It can be expected that concomitant administration of CYP3A4 inducers, such as rifampin, will decrease plasma levels of sildenafil.

 

Single doses of antacid (magnesium hydroxide/aluminum hydroxide) did not affect the bioavailability of sildenafil citrate.

 

Pharmacokinetic data from patients in clinical trials showed no effect on sildenafil pharmacokinetics of CYP2C9 inhibitors (such as tolbutamide, warfarin), CYP2D6 inhibitors (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants), thiazide and related diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and calcium channel blockers. The AUC of the active metabolite, N-desmethyl sildenafil, was increased 62% by loop and potassium-sparing diuretics and 102% by nonspecific beta-blockers. These effects on the metabolite are not expected to be of clinical consequence.

 

Effects of Sildenafil Citrate on Other Drugs

 

In Vitro Studies: Sildenafil is a weak inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 isoforms 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4 (IC50 >150 mM). Given sildenafil peak plasma concentrations of approximately 1 mM after recommended doses, it is unlikely that sildenafil citrate will alter the clearance of substrates of these isoenzymes.

 

In Vivo Studies: When sildenafil citrate 100 mg oral was coadministered with amlodipine, 5 mg or 10 mg oral, to hypertensive patients, the mean additional reduction on supine blood pressure was 8 mmHg systolic and 7 mmHg diastolic.

 

No significant interactions were shown with tolbutamide (250 mg) or warfarin (40 mg), both of which are metabolized by CYP2C9.

 

Sildenafil citrate (50 mg) did not potentiate the increase in bleeding time caused by aspirin (150 mg).

Sildenafil citrate (50 mg) did not potentiate the hypotensive effect of alcohol in healthy volunteers with mean maximum blood alcohol levels of 0.08%.

 

Sildenafil (100 mg) did not affect the steady state pharmacokinetics of the HIV protease inhibitors, saquinavir and ritonavir, both of which are CYP3A4 substrates.